The bond bear growls

27/02/2018

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James Cielinski, Global Head of Fixed Income at Janus Henderson, explores what a rising yield environment might mean for investors.  

 

Epitaphs are being written daily about the death of the 35-year old bond bull market. Could the long feared bear market be upon us given the rapid ascent of yields? Led by the US and Europe, 10-year yields are higher by 67 and 36 basis points (bp), respectively, over the last five months*.

There are few more emotional terms than “bear market”; but it is important to define what this term really means. Investors should be less concerned about terminology and more about what a rising yield environment might look like, how it might impact returns and what investment strategies stand the best chance of succeeding in this environment. In fact, the range of potential interest rate outcomes is more manageable than many fear. 

*Bloomberg, as at 12 February 2018.

Interest rates bottomed in mid 2016

We have already been in a bear market (of sorts) for the last eighteen months. Developed market government bond yields troughed in the summer of 2016. You would be forgiven for not appreciating the significance of this. Total returns from government bonds were positive in both 2016 and 2017 (see figure 1); hardly the definition of a classic bear market! Results were even better if one owned corporate or emerging market bonds. And for those that navigated the volatile, uneven rise in rates, it was even possible to produce some very robust investment returns.

Figure 1: yields on the upswing - G7 global government bond index

Source: Bloomberg, yield to worst and total return for ICE BofA Merrill Lynch G7 government index, in local currency terms, as at 12 February 2018.

Past performance is not a guide to future performance.

The secular arguments for low interest rates have been well documented. Globalisation, ageing demographics, faltering productivity and the mammoth debt overhang have relentlessly pushed the equilibrium level of rates lower. These forces have been persistent for decades and are not about to vanish. Sustainable, rapid growth will require stronger credit creation. Yet, the build up in debt, both pre and post-crisis makes this route unlikely.

The inflection point in yields was a reminder of the difference between yields staying low, as opposed to the argument that yields should not rise. Secular forces (generating low inflation) will continue to supress yields. Cyclical forces, coupled with extremely low starting valuations, are pushing yields higher today. However, we have likely reached the point where this tug of war moves to a new phase — tighter monetary policy is coming, although much is priced in, and inflation expectations have also moved higher.

Bear market or not, yields are unlikely to shoot sharply higher from today’s levels. Cyclical forces are likely to push rates higher, but powerful structural factors will act as an upper bound and preclude a return to pre crisis levels. Equilibrium 10 year yields are not far north of 3% but a more convincing pick-up in wage inflation or credit creation is needed to move to a 3.5% level. And a move to 3.5 – 4.0% at this late stage in the cycle would require strong global economic acceleration and a regime shift in fiscal policies. You can call it whatever you want, but these outcomes do not spell impending doom. A bond bear market is not the equal of an equity bear market.

Figure 2: US 10 year Treasury yield heading higher but not alarming

Source: Bloomberg, generic US 10 year government bond yield, 31 January 1980 to 31 January 2018.

A central bank double whammy

Global bonds are contending with the headwind of rising policy rates and the decline of central bank asset purchases. The removal of accommodation has left many wondering who the next marginal buyer of bonds might be. But there are limits to policy. The European Central Bank for example, cannot tighten too much before the soaring euro crimps export growth. A policy mistake may also jeopardise equity market stability, the most important component of financial conditions. Moreover, central banks will be data dependent. Figure 3 shows that the most important data — core inflation — is mostly missing in action.

Figure 3: boredom alert — global core inflation has barely moved

 

Source: Bloomberg, 31 December 2007 to 30 September 2017.

Diversity — the beauty of global fixed income markets

A rising rate environment does not affect all bonds equally and may not imply negative total returns for many bonds. Credit and emerging market debt may perform better or worse than government bonds. Other assets such as floating rate notes and inflation-linked bonds can help protect from rising inflation. And finally, higher rates are improving the ability of bonds to provide diversification in a broader portfolio via better performance in ‘risk-off’ events.

Figure 4: scenario analysis – 12-month estimated returns in a rising yield environment

 

Source: Janus Henderson Investors calculations as at 12 February 2018, expected returns using stress tests from RiskMetrics. Expected returns are estimates only and are not guaranteed; based on expected correlations and volatilities, which may be subject to change. Note: credit spread tightening has been excluded in the analysis for investment grade expected returns. Euro government, Euro IG corporate and Euro high yield returns are in euros, all others are in US dollars. Bp = basis points. IG = investment grade.

 

The current cycle is getting old. There is a need for many investors to de risk and fixed income should play a vital role. The challenge is to recognise that many of the investment rules have changed. Growth at full employment is not generating inflation. Higher corporate leverage is not generating defaults and wider credit spreads. Central bank behaviour continues to distort markets. Benchmark-agnostic approaches that seek to solve today’s problems might stress income, attractive returns with downside protection or low exposure to rising interest rates.

It may not matter whether this is a mere correction or a bear market. Returns will of course differ, but the right approach for investors should be similar for both. If we are witnessing a more sustainable inflation upturn, it implies policy normalisation and a new rate environment, which requires a flexible approach. Alternatively, we may be nearing the top of the range for rates, with inflation once again failing to accelerate. But again, this outcome demands a flexible approach.

Bond markets are not cheap and credit spreads are tight. The challenge is to look beyond the mainstream for opportunities, adapt to changing rules and rotate across a wide range of investment opportunities. In my view, flexibility is a prerequisite to success in today’s markets.


The views presented are as at 14 February 2018. They are for information purposes only and should not be construed as investment advice. No forecasts can be guaranteed. Opinions and examples are meant as an illustration of broader themes, are not an indication of trading intent and may be subject to change.

These are the views of the author at the time of publication and may differ from the views of other individuals/teams at Janus Henderson Investors. Any securities, funds, sectors and indices mentioned within this article do not constitute or form part of any offer or solicitation to buy or sell them.

Past performance is not a guide to future performance. The value of an investment and the income from it can fall as well as rise and you may not get back the amount originally invested.

The information in this article does not qualify as an investment recommendation.

For promotional purposes.


Important information

Please read the following important information regarding funds related to this article.

Janus Henderson Absolute Return Income Fund

For institutional/ sophisticated investors / accredited investors qualified distributors use only.

All content in this document is for information or general use only and is not specific to any individual client requirements. The information contained in this document is referential and may not be construed as an offer, invitation or recommendation or investment advice, nor should be taken as a basis to take (or stop taking) any decision.

Janus Henderson Capital Funds Plc is a UCITS established under Irish law, with segregated liability between funds. Investors are warned that they should only make their investments based on the most recent Prospectus which contains information about fees, expenses and risks, which is available from all distributors and paying agents, it should be read carefully. An investment in the fund may not be suitable for all investors and is not available to all investors in all jurisdictions; it is not available to US persons.  Past performance is not indicative of future results. The rate of return may vary and the principal value of an investment will fluctuate due to market and foreign exchange movements.  Shares, if redeemed, may be worth more or less than their original cost.

Janus Henderson Group plc and its subsidiaries are not responsible for any unlawful distribution of this document to any third parties, in whole or in part, or for information reconstructed from this document and do not guarantee that the information supplied is accurate, complete, or timely, or make any warranties with regards to the results obtained from its use. As with all investments, there are inherent risks that each individual should address.

The distribution of this document or the information contained in it may be restricted by law and may not be used in any jurisdiction or any circumstances in which its use would be unlawful.

Issued in Europe by Janus Capital International Limited (“JCIL”), authorised and regulated by the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority. Janus Capital International Limited (“JCIL”) is an entity registered and operating under the laws of the United Kingdom and Janus Capital Funds plc. is registered under the legislation of Ireland.

The extract prospectus (edition for Switzerland), the articles of incorporation, the extract annual and semi-annual report, in German, can be obtained free of charge from the representative in Switzerland: First Independent Fund Services Ltd (“FIFS”), Klausstrasse 33, CH-8008 Zurich, Switzerland, tel: +41 44 206 16 40, fax: +41 44 206 16 41, web: http://www.fifs.ch. The Swiss paying agent is: Banque Cantonale de Genève, 17, quai de l’Ile, CH-1204 Geneva. The last share prices can be found on www.fundinfo.com. For Qualified investors, institutional, wholesale client use only. Outside of Switzerland, this document is for professional use only. Not for onward distribution.

This material is strictly private and confidential and may not be reproduced or used for any purpose other than evaluation of a potential investment in Janus Capital International Limited’s products or the procurement of its services by the recipient of this presentation or provided to any person or entity other than the recipient of this presentation.

We may record telephone calls for our mutual protection, to improve customer service and for regulatory record keeping purposes.

Janus Capital Management LLC serves as investment adviser. Janus, Intech and Perkins are registered trademarks of Janus International Holding LLC. © Janus International Holding LLC. For more information or to locate your country’s Janus representative contact information, please visit www.janushenderson.com.

Specific risks

  • This fund is designed to be used only as one component of several in a diversified investment portfolio. Investors should consider carefully the proportion of their portfolio invested into this fund.
  • An issuer of a bond (or money market instrument) may become unable or unwilling to pay interest or repay capital to the Fund. If this happens or the market perceives this may happen, the value of the bond will fall.
  • The Fund may use derivatives towards the aim of achieving its investment objective. This can result in 'leverage', which can magnify an investment outcome and gains or losses to the Fund may be greater than the cost of the derivative. Derivatives also introduce other risks, in particular, that a derivative counterparty may not meet its contractual obligations.
  • If the Fund holds assets in currencies other than the base currency of the Fund or you invest in a share class of a different currency to the Fund (unless 'hedged'), the value of your investment may be impacted by changes in exchange rates.
  • When interest rates rise (or fall), the prices of different securities will be affected differently. In particular, bond values generally fall when interest rates rise. This risk is generally greater the longer the maturity of a bond investment.
  • Securities within the Fund could become hard to value or to sell at a desired time and price, especially in extreme market conditions when asset prices may be falling, increasing the risk of investment losses.

Risk rating

Janus Henderson Absolute Return Income Opportunities Fund

For institutional/ sophisticated investors / accredited investors qualified distributors use only.

All content in this document is for information or general use only and is not specific to any individual client requirements. The information contained in this document is referential and may not be construed as an offer, invitation or recommendation or investment advice, nor should be taken as a basis to take (or stop taking) any decision.

Janus Henderson Capital Funds Plc is a UCITS established under Irish law, with segregated liability between funds. Investors are warned that they should only make their investments based on the most recent Prospectus which contains information about fees, expenses and risks, which is available from all distributors and paying agents, it should be read carefully. An investment in the fund may not be suitable for all investors and is not available to all investors in all jurisdictions; it is not available to US persons.  Past performance is not indicative of future results. The rate of return may vary and the principal value of an investment will fluctuate due to market and foreign exchange movements.  Shares, if redeemed, may be worth more or less than their original cost.

Janus Henderson Group plc and its subsidiaries are not responsible for any unlawful distribution of this document to any third parties, in whole or in part, or for information reconstructed from this document and do not guarantee that the information supplied is accurate, complete, or timely, or make any warranties with regards to the results obtained from its use. As with all investments, there are inherent risks that each individual should address.

The distribution of this document or the information contained in it may be restricted by law and may not be used in any jurisdiction or any circumstances in which its use would be unlawful.

Issued in Europe by Janus Capital International Limited (“JCIL”), authorised and regulated by the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority. Janus Capital International Limited (“JCIL”) is an entity registered and operating under the laws of the United Kingdom and Janus Capital Funds plc. is registered under the legislation of Ireland.

The extract prospectus (edition for Switzerland), the articles of incorporation, the extract annual and semi-annual report, in German, can be obtained free of charge from the representative in Switzerland: First Independent Fund Services Ltd (“FIFS”), Klausstrasse 33, CH-8008 Zurich, Switzerland, tel: +41 44 206 16 40, fax: +41 44 206 16 41, web: http://www.fifs.ch. The Swiss paying agent is: Banque Cantonale de Genève, 17, quai de l’Ile, CH-1204 Geneva. The last share prices can be found on www.fundinfo.com. For Qualified investors, institutional, wholesale client use only. Outside of Switzerland, this document is for professional use only. Not for onward distribution.

This material is strictly private and confidential and may not be reproduced or used for any purpose other than evaluation of a potential investment in Janus Capital International Limited’s products or the procurement of its services by the recipient of this presentation or provided to any person or entity other than the recipient of this presentation.

We may record telephone calls for our mutual protection, to improve customer service and for regulatory record keeping purposes.

Janus Capital Management LLC serves as investment adviser. Janus, Intech and Perkins are registered trademarks of Janus International Holding LLC. © Janus International Holding LLC. For more information or to locate your country’s Janus representative contact information, please visit www.janushenderson.com.

Specific risks

  • Some or all of the Annual Management Charge and other costs of the Fund may be taken from capital, which may erode capital or reduce potential for capital growth.
  • This fund is designed to be used only as one component of several in a diversified investment portfolio. Investors should consider carefully the proportion of their portfolio invested into this fund.
  • If a Fund has a high exposure to a particular country or geographical region it carries a higher level of risk than a Fund which is more broadly diversified.
  • An issuer of a bond (or money market instrument) may become unable or unwilling to pay interest or repay capital to the Fund. If this happens or the market perceives this may happen, the value of the bond will fall.
  • The Fund may use derivatives towards the aim of achieving its investment objective. This can result in 'leverage', which can magnify an investment outcome and gains or losses to the Fund may be greater than the cost of the derivative. Derivatives also introduce other risks, in particular, that a derivative counterparty may not meet its contractual obligations.
  • Emerging markets expose the Fund to higher volatility and greater risk of loss than developed markets; they are susceptible to adverse political and economic events, and may be less well regulated with less robust custody and settlement procedures.
  • If the Fund holds assets in currencies other than the base currency of the Fund or you invest in a share class of a different currency to the Fund (unless 'hedged'), the value of your investment may be impacted by changes in exchange rates.
  • The Fund invests in high yield (non-investment grade) bonds and while these generally offer higher rates of interest than investment grade bonds, they are more speculative and more sensitive to adverse changes in market conditions.
  • When interest rates rise (or fall), the prices of different securities will be affected differently. In particular, bond values generally fall when interest rates rise. This risk is generally greater the longer the maturity of a bond investment.
  • Securities within the Fund could become hard to value or to sell at a desired time and price, especially in extreme market conditions when asset prices may be falling, increasing the risk of investment losses.

Risk rating

Janus Henderson Horizon Strategic Bond Fund

This document is intended solely for the use of professionals and is not for general public distribution.

The Janus Henderson Horizon Fund (the “Fund”) is a Luxembourg SICAV incorporated on 30 May 1985, managed by Henderson Management S.A. Any investment application will be made solely on the basis of the information contained in the Fund’s prospectus (including all relevant covering documents), which will contain investment restrictions. This document is intended as a summary only and potential investors must read the Fund’s prospectus and key investor information document before investing. A copy of the Fund’s prospectus and key investor information document can be obtained from Henderson Global Investors Limited in its capacity as Investment Manager and Distributor.

Issued in Europe by Janus Henderson Investors. Janus Henderson Investors is the name under which investment products and services are provided by Janus Capital International Limited (reg no. 3594615), Henderson Global Investors Limited (reg. no. 906355), Henderson Investment Funds Limited (reg. no. 2678531), AlphaGen Capital Limited (reg. no. 962757), Henderson Equity Partners Limited (reg. no.2606646), (each registered in England and Wales at 201 Bishopsgate, London EC2M 3AE and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority) and Henderson Management S.A. (reg no. B22848 at 2 Rue de Bitbourg, L-1273, Luxembourg and regulated by the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier). We may record telephone calls for our mutual protection, to improve customer service and for regulatory record keeping purposes.

Past performance is not a guide to future performance. The performance data does not take into account the commissions and costs incurred on the issue and redemption of units. The value of an investment and the income from it can fall as well as rise and you may not get back the amount originally invested. Tax assumptions and reliefs depend upon an investor’s particular circumstances and may change if those circumstances or the law change. If you invest through a third party provider you are advised to consult them directly as charges, performance and terms and conditions may differ materially.

Nothing in this document is intended to or should be construed as advice. This document is not a recommendation to sell or purchase any investment. It does not form part of any contract for the sale or purchase of any investment.

The Fund is a recognised collective investment scheme for the purpose of promotion into the United Kingdom. Potential investors in the United Kingdom are advised that all, or most, of the protections afforded by the United Kingdom regulatory system will not apply to an investment in the Fund and that compensation will not be available under the United Kingdom Financial Services Compensation Scheme.

Copies of the Fund’s prospectus and key investor information document are available in English, French, German, and Italian. Articles of incorporation, annual and semi-annual reports are available in English. Key Investor document is also available in Spanish. All of these documents can be obtained free of cost from the local offices of Janus Henderson Investors: 201 Bishopsgate, London, EC2M 3AE for UK, Swedish and Scandinavian investors; Via Dante 14, 20121 Milan, Italy, for Italian investors and Roemer Visscherstraat 43-45, 1054 EW Amsterdam, the Netherlands. for Dutch investors; and the Fund’s: Austrian Paying Agent Raiffeisen Bank International AG, Am Stadtpark 9, A-1030 Vienna; French Paying Agent BNP Paribas Securities Services, 3, rue d’Antin, F-75002 Paris; German Information Agent Marcard, Stein & Co, Ballindamm 36, 20095 Hamburg; Belgian Financial Service Provider CACEIS Belgium S.A., Avenue du Port 86 C b320, B-1000 Brussels; Spanish Representative Allfunds Bank S.A. Estafeta, 6 Complejo Plaza de la Fuente, La Moraleja, Alcobendas 28109 Madrid; Singapore Representative Janus Henderson Investors (Singapore) Limited, 138 Market Street, #34-03 / 04 CapitaGreen 048946; or Swiss Representative BNP Paribas Securities Services, Paris, succursale de Zurich, Selnaustrasse 16, 8002 Zurich who are also the Swiss Paying Agent. RBC Investor Services Trust Hong Kong Limited, a subsidiary of the joint venture UK holding company RBC Investor Services Limited, 51/F Central Plaza, 18 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong, Tel: +852 2978 5656 is the Fund’s Representative in Hong Kong.

Information on this document is on Janus Henderson Investors’ best endeavours.

Specific risks

  • This fund is designed to be used only as one component in several in a diversified investment portfolio. Investors should consider carefully the proportion of their portfolio invested into this fund.
  • The Fund could lose money if a counterparty with which it trades becomes unwilling or unable to meet its obligations to the Fund.
  • The value of a bond or money market instrument may fall if the financial health of the issuer weakens, or the market believes it may weaken. This risk is greater the lower the credit quality of the bond.
  • Changes in currency exchange rates may cause the value of your investment and any income from it to rise or fall.
  • If the Fund or a specific share class of the Fund seeks to reduce risks (such as exchange rate movements), the measures designed to do so may be ineffective, unavailable or detrimental.
  • When interest rates rise (or fall), the prices of different securities will be affected differently. In particular, bond values generally fall when interest rates rise. This risk is generally greater the longer the maturity of a bond investment.
  • Any security could become hard to value or to sell at a desired time and price, increasing the risk of investment losses.

Risk rating

Janus Henderson Horizon Total Return Bond Fund

This document is intended solely for the use of professionals and is not for general public distribution.

The Janus Henderson Horizon Fund (the “Fund”) is a Luxembourg SICAV incorporated on 30 May 1985, managed by Henderson Management S.A. Any investment application will be made solely on the basis of the information contained in the Fund’s prospectus (including all relevant covering documents), which will contain investment restrictions. This document is intended as a summary only and potential investors must read the Fund’s prospectus and key investor information document before investing. A copy of the Fund’s prospectus and key investor information document can be obtained from Henderson Global Investors Limited in its capacity as Investment Manager and Distributor.

Issued in Europe by Janus Henderson Investors. Janus Henderson Investors is the name under which investment products and services are provided by Janus Capital International Limited (reg no. 3594615), Henderson Global Investors Limited (reg. no. 906355), Henderson Investment Funds Limited (reg. no. 2678531), AlphaGen Capital Limited (reg. no. 962757), Henderson Equity Partners Limited (reg. no.2606646), (each registered in England and Wales at 201 Bishopsgate, London EC2M 3AE and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority) and Henderson Management S.A. (reg no. B22848 at 2 Rue de Bitbourg, L-1273, Luxembourg and regulated by the Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier). We may record telephone calls for our mutual protection, to improve customer service and for regulatory record keeping purposes.

Past performance is not a guide to future performance. The performance data does not take into account the commissions and costs incurred on the issue and redemption of units. The value of an investment and the income from it can fall as well as rise and you may not get back the amount originally invested. Tax assumptions and reliefs depend upon an investor’s particular circumstances and may change if those circumstances or the law change. If you invest through a third party provider you are advised to consult them directly as charges, performance and terms and conditions may differ materially.

Nothing in this document is intended to or should be construed as advice. This document is not a recommendation to sell or purchase any investment. It does not form part of any contract for the sale or purchase of any investment.

The Fund is a recognised collective investment scheme for the purpose of promotion into the United Kingdom. Potential investors in the United Kingdom are advised that all, or most, of the protections afforded by the United Kingdom regulatory system will not apply to an investment in the Fund and that compensation will not be available under the United Kingdom Financial Services Compensation Scheme.

Copies of the Fund’s prospectus and key investor information document are available in English, French, German, and Italian. Articles of incorporation, annual and semi-annual reports are available in English. Key Investor document is also available in Spanish. All of these documents can be obtained free of cost from the local offices of Janus Henderson Investors: 201 Bishopsgate, London, EC2M 3AE for UK, Swedish and Scandinavian investors; Via Dante 14, 20121 Milan, Italy, for Italian investors and Roemer Visscherstraat 43-45, 1054 EW Amsterdam, the Netherlands. for Dutch investors; and the Fund’s: Austrian Paying Agent Raiffeisen Bank International AG, Am Stadtpark 9, A-1030 Vienna; French Paying Agent BNP Paribas Securities Services, 3, rue d’Antin, F-75002 Paris; German Information Agent Marcard, Stein & Co, Ballindamm 36, 20095 Hamburg; Belgian Financial Service Provider CACEIS Belgium S.A., Avenue du Port 86 C b320, B-1000 Brussels; Spanish Representative Allfunds Bank S.A. Estafeta, 6 Complejo Plaza de la Fuente, La Moraleja, Alcobendas 28109 Madrid; Singapore Representative Janus Henderson Investors (Singapore) Limited, 138 Market Street, #34-03 / 04 CapitaGreen 048946; or Swiss Representative BNP Paribas Securities Services, Paris, succursale de Zurich, Selnaustrasse 16, 8002 Zurich who are also the Swiss Paying Agent. RBC Investor Services Trust Hong Kong Limited, a subsidiary of the joint venture UK holding company RBC Investor Services Limited, 51/F Central Plaza, 18 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong, Tel: +852 2978 5656 is the Fund’s Representative in Hong Kong.

Information on this document is on Janus Henderson Investors’ best endeavours.

Specific risks

  • This fund is designed to be used only as one component in several in a diversified investment portfolio. Investors should consider carefully the proportion of their portfolio invested into this fund.
  • The Fund could lose money if a counterparty with which it trades becomes unwilling or unable to meet its obligations to the Fund.
  • The value of a bond or money market instrument may fall if the financial health of the issuer weakens, or the market believes it may weaken. This risk is greater the lower the credit quality of the bond.
  • Emerging markets are less established and more prone to political events than developed markets. This can mean both higher volatility and a greater risk of loss to the Fund than investing in more developed markets.
  • Changes in currency exchange rates may cause the value of your investment and any income from it to rise or fall.
  • If the Fund or a specific share class of the Fund seeks to reduce risks (such as exchange rate movements), the measures designed to do so may be ineffective, unavailable or detrimental.
  • When interest rates rise (or fall), the prices of different securities will be affected differently. In particular, bond values generally fall when interest rates rise. This risk is generally greater the longer the maturity of a bond investment.
  • Any security could become hard to value or to sell at a desired time and price, increasing the risk of investment losses.
  • Callable debt securities (securities whose issuers have the right to pay off the security’s principal before the maturity date), such as ABS or MBS, can be impacted from prepayment or extension of maturity. The value of your investment may fall as a result.

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